May 5, 2014


Adaptation:The process by which individuals (or parts of individuals), populations, or species change in form or function in order to perform better under given or changed environmental conditions. May also be used for the results of this process.

Agroecological zone: land resource mapping unit, defined in terms of climate, landform and soils, and/or land cover, and having a specific range of potentials and constraints for land use.

Agropisciculture: Combination or alternation of agriculture and freshwater aquaculture.

Alga (pl. algae): Primitive chlorophyll-containing mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms lacking true stems and roots and leaves.

Bio-based sectors: Sectors related to the bio-based economy. The bioeconomy provides a useful basis for such an approach, as it encompasses the production of renewable biological resources and the conversion of these resources and waste streams into value added products, such as food, feed, bio-based products and bioenergy. Its sectors and industries have strong innovation potential due to their use of a wide range of sciences, enabling and industrial technologies, along with local and tacit knowledge.

Blue economy: All economic activities that depend on the sea (not including military activities): e.g. coastal tourism, offshore oil and gas, deep sea shipping, short-sea shipping, yachting and marinas, passenger ferry services, cruise tourism, fisheries, inland waterway protection, coastal protection, offshore wind, etc.

Biodiversity: The variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part: this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.

Blue growth: Smart, sustainable and inclusive economic and employment growth from the oceans, seas and coasts

Carbon footprint: the amount of greenhouse gases and specifically carbon dioxide emitted by something (as a person’s activities or a product’s manufacture and transport) during a given period

Circular economy: A circular economy seeks to rebuild capital, whether this is financial, manufactured, human, social or natural. This ensures enhanced flows of goods and services.

Climate: Condition of the atmosphere in a particular region over a long period of time. Climate is a long-term summation of atmospheric elements (e.g. solar radiation, temperature, humidity, frequency and amount of precipitation, atmospheric pressure, speed and direction of wind) and their variations.

Clusters: Groupings of independent undertakings —start-ups, small, medium and large undertakings as well as research organisations —operating in a particular sector and region and designed to stimulate activity by promoting intensive interactions, sharing of facilities and exchange of knowledge and expertise and by contributing effectively to technology transfer, networking and information dissemination among the undertakings in the cluster.” In more general terms, clusters can be defined as a group of firms, related economic actors, and institutions that are located near each other and have reached a sufficient scale to develop specialised expertise, services, resources, suppliers and skills.

Community-based services: Community-based services provide opportunities for beneficiaries to receive services in their own community (mainly developed in the health sector).

Eco-innovation: Eco-innovation is any innovation that reduces the use of natural resources and decreases the release of harmful substances across the whole life cycle.

Ecosystem: A natural entity (or a system) with distinct structures and relationships that liaise biotic communities (of plants and animals) to each other and to their abiotic environment.The study of an ecosystem provides a methodological basis for complex synthesis between organisms and their environment.

Ecosystem-based management: an integrated approach that considers an entire ecosystem, including humans, with the goal of maintaining a healthy, resilient and productive ecosystem that can provide goods and services.

Environment: All the external or internal factors or conditions supporting or influencing the existence or development of an organism or assemblages of organisms.

Environmental management system: An Environmental management system (EMS) is a tool that provides organisations with a method to systematically manage and improve the environmental aspects of their production processes. It helps organisations to achieve their environmental obligations and performance goals. The European Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) is a voluntary environmental management instrument based on a harmonised scheme throughout the EU. Its objective is to improve the environmental performance of organisations by having them commit to both evaluating and reducing their environmental impact, and continuously improving their environmental performance.

Green growth: Green growth is a concept that has been developed to complement the concept of Sustainable development. Green Growth aims to shift the pattern of economic growth towards an environmentally-friendly one.

Green economy: The green economy is the concept developed by UnEP-the Green Economy Initiative. The Green Economy is defined as an economy that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. In its simplest expression, a Green Economy can be thought of as one that is low carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive. Its growth in income and employment is driven by public and private investments, which reduce carbon emissions and pollution, enhance energy and resource efficiency and prevent the loss of bio-diversity and ecosystem services.

Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM): a process for planning and coordinating the sustainable use of coastal waters and land.

Low carbon economy: The transition towards a competitive low carbon economy means that the EU should prepare for reductions in its domestic emissions by 80% by 2050 compared to 1990.

Maritime spatial planning (MSP): the process of analysing and allocating the spatial and temporal distribution of human activities in marine areas to achieve ecological, economic, and social objectives.

Pollution: The introduction by human activities, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the environment resulting in deleterious effects on living organisms.

Resilience: Resilience is defined as “the ability of an individual, a household, a community, a country or a region to withstand, to adapt, and to quickly recover from stresses and shocks”.

Resource-efficient economy: Resource -efficient economy is an economy which is allowed “to create more with less, delivering greater value with less input, using resources in a sustainable way and minimising their impacts on the environment.”

Secondary raw materials: Recycling of non-ferrous metals and utilization of waste. They come from primary raw material waste-cullet for glass and ferrous scrap for cast-iron.

Sustainable development: Management and conservation of the natural resource base, and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a manner as to ensure the attainment of continued satisfaction of human needs for present and future generations. Such sustainable development conserves (land), water, plants and (animal) genetic resources, is environmentally non-degrading, technologically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable.